Thanks for the reply about parasitology! Cram and purge is definitely a technique I used for histology, so perhaps it'll come in handy again ;)
Happy to help! But really… I don’t recommend cram and purge as a long term successful solution! Even if it helps you pass a class it’s important to remember why you are taking the class. I sure wish I could recall more things from parasit.
Another suggestion I forgot to mention is to make a summary study guide. This isn’t supposed to have all the information and may not get you the A+ in the class. BUT it’s a great way to actively review the information while you make it and determine what are the most important parts. And best yet - you have a quick reference guide for the future! (Did this for anesthesia, cardio, respiratory, and clinical pathology and it’s the best thing past me did for current me)
Random question, do you have any advice for studying veterinary parasitology? Helpful flashcards or anything? I'm starting the class in a couple weeks and it's like a completely different language :(
Oooo parasitology…. My least favorite class of all time hands down. Personally I did the method I use for classes I seriously dislike: cram and purge… and therefore remember little to nothing - so I really don’t recommend that approach.
It’s pretty much pure memorization… Flash cards help there. Otherwise if you have a study partner or two - take turns drawing out the life cycles on a white board and make up silly ways of remembering all the mundane life cycle details. Hopefully your professor encourages you to know more about things that occur commonly. (Or if your class was like mine… Then best of luck…)
If you can see pictures of the actual parasite in the different stages and the pathologic lesions they can cause then that can help put some context on an otherwise abstract subject and can help increase retention of information.
Dedicate the time needed and you can do it!
I'm not saying you're wrong, but I'm just wondering how do we know that dogs CAN'T feel guilt, smile, etc? Maybe that's not what they're doing in the examples people provide, but how do we know they can't? I've seen studies on how dogs can mourn, remember hundreds of words, trick their owners when they believe they have the opportunity, experience jealousy, etc. Are any of these true, or are dogs just emotionless, thoughtless robots that run on basic instinct?
I would definitely never ever ever say that dogs are emotionless or thoughtless! They’re extremely capable of emotion and thought! We’re only just starting to delve into the depths of canine cognition and we’ve even found that dogs are cognitively on par with a 2 year old child! But we’ve barely even scratched the surface!
However, we do need to be careful about anthropomorphising our dogs:
1. “The Guilty Look”
Dogs are incredibly capable of reading human body language - they’ve pretty much evolved to pick up the most subtlest of signals we give out - That’s why, when an owner stumbles upon their puppy’s mess on the floor and goes over to scold it, the dog will shrink back and throw out appeasement signals. It’s not “guilt” it’s just them responding by trying to avoid conflict and responding to the aggressive or confrontational body language/voice tone.
During the study, owners were asked to leave the room after ordering their dogs not to eat a tasty treat. While the owner was away, Horowitz gave some of the dogs this forbidden treat before asking the owners back into the room. In some trials the owners were told that their dog had eaten the forbidden treat; in others, they were told their dog had behaved properly and left the treat alone. What the owners were told, however, often did not correlate with reality.
Whether the dogs’ demeanour included elements of the “guilty look” had little to do with whether the dogs had actually eaten the forbidden treat or not. Dogs looked most “guilty” if they were admonished by their owners for eating the treat. In fact, dogs that had been obedient and had not eaten the treat, but were scolded by their (misinformed) owners, looked more “guilty” than those that had, in fact, eaten the treat. Thus the dog’s guilty look is a response to the owner’s behavior, and not necessarily indicative of any appreciation of its own misdeeds.
Obviously, more research needs to be done here, but at the moment we’ve concluded that the “guilty look” is a result of human error and anthropomorphism, rather than what the dog is really feeling. Which is why I hate “dog shaming” and those “guilty dog” videos - those owners are towering over their dogs demanding “DID YOU DO THIS? OH BAD DOG!” and the dog is cowering away from this angry person. It’s horrible :(
2. “The Smile”
Yes! Dogs do smile! But not like this:
This dog is not happy - ears pressed down and back, squinty eyes, tight lips - this is a fear grimace!
This dog is also not smiling - eyes wide, ears back, mouth pulled back, short panting - looking at the context, most dogs don’t like baths - so no surprises here - fear grimace.
I made a post about this a while back on fyeahanimaltraining
Fear Grimace: (Often called fear grimace, but also seen in excited dogs) Tense jaw muscles. Mouth pulled at corners back exposing molars or all teeth. Visible creases at corners of mouth, forehead - fear, tension, excitement. Looks like an exaggerated or forced smile.
Smile: Relaxed jaw muscles, tongue exposed. No visible creases on face, forehead.(x)
This is a smile - tongue lolling, relaxed mouth, soft eyes, natural ear carriage - This my dog after racing around fetching her ball and playing so she was very happy (note: I do not use that martingale collar on her anymore) :D
Dogs can definitely smile, but, again, not the way humans do!
I hope that clears up a few things!
There is still so much more research to be done, which is why I’m so excited to get involved in this field!
But dogs are amazing! And we’re only just discovering just how emotionally and mentally complex and wonderful they really are!